Compulsory elimination of the hottest and most ine

2022-10-24
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Forced elimination of inefficient motors is the only way for China to become an industrial power.

during the 2016 two sessions, Huang Daifang, a deputy to the National People's Congress and chairman of the board of directors of Taihao group, submitted the "suggestions on promoting energy conservation and emission reduction by promoting efficient motors". The proposal directly points to the core problem of China's high industrial energy consumption, that is, the energy efficiency level of China's motors, as the power source of China's industry, is far lower than that of developed countries, which has become a persistent disease of China's high energy consumption. The mandatory elimination of inefficient Motors has become a difficult problem that must be overcome in the process of China's industrial transformation, and also a hard battle that must be won in the supply side reform. This paper will comprehensively explain from the following aspects why it is the only way for China to strengthen the promotion of efficient motors and force the elimination of inefficient motors. Why the promotion of efficient motors has become a difficult problem that must be overcome in the process of China's industrial transformation

1. Current situation of energy utilization in China

in 2014, the total electricity consumption of the whole society was 5523.3 billion kwh, an increase of 3.8% year-on-year. Among them, industrial electricity consumption is 3993 billion kwh, accounting for 72.3% of the total electricity consumption of the whole society

Chart 2014 China's total social electricity consumption

data source: National Bureau of statistics

in 2014, the total electricity consumption of China's electrical system reached 3535.6 billion kwh, accounting for 64% of the total social electricity consumption. Among them, the total power consumption of industrial system motors is 2872.7 billion kwh, accounting for 71.9% of the total power consumption of industrial system. At present, China's energy efficiency is only about 30%, about 10 percentage points lower than that of developed countries: the per capita energy consumption is only about 50% of the world average level, and it is one of the countries with the highest output value and energy consumption in the world. According to the US energy information administration in its 2011 world energy outlook 2011, by 2035, China's total energy consumption is expected to be the sum of the United States and India. The tense situation of energy supply and demand in China will exist for a long time, and ensuring energy supply is a major bottleneck in China for a long time

2. Analysis of China's high-efficiency motor market

in 2014, China's level 1 energy efficiency motor output accounted for 0.33%, all of which were export products, and level 2 energy efficiency products accounted for 9.09%, some of which were used for export. Among the Motors sold in the domestic market, level 2 high-efficiency motors account for only 4.03%. Grade 3 products accounted for 38.37%, and products that did not reach grade 3 accounted for about 52.21%

distribution of small and medium-sized three-phase asynchronous motors with different energy efficiency grades in 2014

data source: International Copper Association (China)

according to the new version of GB "energy efficiency limits and energy efficiency grades of small and medium-sized three-phase asynchronous motors" implemented on September 1, 2012, it can be seen from the above table that 52.21% of the new motors in China are motors that should be eliminated

3. International market analysis of high-efficiency motors

energy saving of motors and systems is an area recognized by governments of all countries as having great energy-saving potential. At present, there is a big gap between the energy efficiency of single motor in China and the international advanced level. At present, most of the motors produced and in use in China are those with energy efficiency lower than grade 3 of GB standard. Its average efficiency is 87%, while the efficiency of high-efficiency motors already implemented in developed countries has reached more than 91%. The efficiency of ultra efficient motors in the United States is 93%, and the system operation efficiency is 10% - 20% higher than that in China

the formulation and implementation of mandatory energy efficiency standards for motors is one of the powerful means to promote the improvement of motor energy efficiency. At present, it has been promoted and implemented in many countries in the world. Countries and regions that have formulated mandatory energy efficiency standards for motors include Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Brazil, the United States and Mexico. Although the EU currently implements voluntary energy efficiency standards, they have begun to study and formulate mandatory minimum energy efficiency standards

at present, the U.S. report shows that 33% of the Motors sold in the market are ultra efficient motors, and about 50% are efficient motors that comply with the U.S. Energy Policy Act

4. Huge economic benefits of promoting high-efficiency motors

the massive use of low-efficiency Motors has caused huge waste of electricity. Every one percentage point increase in motor energy efficiency in the industrial sector can save about 26billion kwh of electricity annually. Through the promotion of efficient motors, the elimination of inefficient motors in use, the efficient remanufacture of inefficient motors, and the matching and energy-saving transformation of the motor system according to its load characteristics and operating conditions, the efficiency of the motor system can be improved by 5 to 8 percentage points on the whole, and the annual electricity saving can be achieved by 130 billion to 230 billion kwh. Finally, it is equivalent to the power generation of 2 or 3 Three Gorges power stations. (in 2015, the cumulative power generation of new energy within the scope of national power dispatching in the first 11 months was 231.7 billion kwh, accounting for 5.6% of the total power generation, that is to say, the annual amount of motor energy conservation is close to the sum of current new energy power generation.)

at the same time, there is a strong demand for high-efficiency motors in the international market. The following is the export situation of high-efficiency motors in China

China's exports of small and medium-sized motors with different energy efficiency in 2014

data source: International Copper Association (China)

5. Difficulties in the promotion of high-efficiency motors in China

1) poor purchase enthusiasm

replacing high-efficiency Motors has long-term benefits for users, but under the current economic situation, increasing the reinvestment of fixed assets is a difficult problem for motor users to operate normally

at the same time, a large number of customers lack understanding of the theory of product life cycle. They pay more attention to the one-time investment of funds and do not consider the cost in the use process, so they are unwilling to buy high-efficiency motors with high prices

2) the low price bidding mode is unfavorable to the promotion of new technologies

in terms of procurement, general purchasers are limited by procurement costs and hope to buy products with lower prices, and the prices can decline year by year. Domestic bidding projects generally choose the products with the lowest price, and pay insufficient attention to the quality of products. 3) At present, the orders of enterprises have decreased

most of the small and medium-sized three-phase asynchronous motor manufacturing enterprises are produced according to orders, which hinders the promotion of high-efficiency motors. For the main users of motors (including fans, pumps, compressors, etc.), affected by the economic situation and competitive pressure, the current profit space has been extremely small, and reducing costs is the primary task of enterprises, Therefore, the promotion of high-efficiency motors is very difficult only by the influence of market factors

4) the subsidy policy of energy saving and people benefiting project is not implemented in place, which affects the enthusiasm of manufacturers to promote high-pressure experimental machines with driving air pressure ranging from 0.1 to 0.64 MPa. The subsidy of people benefiting project greatly promotes the promotion of high-efficiency motors, and the enthusiasm of enterprises is very high. However, some enterprises say that the procedures for obtaining subsidies are very complex, resulting in great pressure on enterprises to advance funds. Now enterprises are not sure about the national policies, whether they will give subsidies, and under the financial pressure of enterprises, so their enthusiasm has decreased significantly, and many people want to return to ordinary motors

5) the illegal cost is low, and the phenomenon of illegal production, sales and procurement is common

because the variable-frequency motor is not within the scope of GB 18 industry that can meet gb228, some enterprises produce broadband inefficient motors with working frequency range of 30Hz ~ 50Hz or 20Hz ~ 80Hz, so as to avoid the mandatory filing requirements. At the same time, virtual energy efficiency is also an illegal means often used by motor production enterprises. Virtual energy efficiency is not only a violation of the measures for the administration of energy efficiency labels, but also a violation of the energy conservation law

6. Motor remanufacturing industry

during the 2016 two sessions, Huang Daifang, a deputy to the National People's Congress, specifically mentioned the remanufacturing industry in his "suggestions on promoting efficient motors to promote energy conservation and emission reduction". Huang Daifang believes that with the promotion and application of high-efficiency motors, the obsolete old motors will flow into the market again after simple renovation, which will cause the government to promote high-efficiency motors while the low-efficiency motors will return to the market. Therefore, the eliminated Motors should be manufactured efficiently by enterprises with high-efficiency remanufacturing ability, and the remanufacturing plan should be formulated and implemented according to its current situation and operating conditions. Low efficiency motors that are tested to be unnecessary to be remanufactured should be forcibly scrapped to prevent them from flowing into the market again

remanufacturing of industrial products is an important part of manufacturing industry, an important measure to implement the circular economy promotion law and promote the transformation of economic development mode, and an effective means to promote the construction of a resource-saving and environment-friendly society. It can not only realize the reuse of resources and reduce the investment cost of energy consuming enterprises, but also solve the problems of low-level utilization of resources and high environmental risks of traditional disassembly by clicking. At present, the efficient remanufacture of existing motors is generally realized by replacing cast copper rotors

copper rotor motors have obvious advantages, which are mainly reflected in the following five aspects:

1) improve efficiency. For motors with smaller power, the efficiency improvement is more obvious, such as 2.2 kW, 4-pole, 50Hz motors, cast aluminum rotors and cast copper rotors, whose efficiency is 83% and 86.5% respectively

2) reduce the temperature rise. The service life of the motor can be doubled for every 10 ℃ reduction in the operating temperature of the motor. The copper rotor motor can increase the service life of the motor and increase the electrical safety at the same time, especially suitable for explosive special environments

3) compared with the motor with the same efficiency, the motor with cast copper rotor can reduce the volume by about 15%, reduce the weight of the motor and reduce the cost of the motor

4) compared with rare earth permanent magnet synchronous motor, it has higher reliability, and rare earth permanent magnet motor will appear demagnetization phenomenon in a short time under high temperature (more than 100 ℃); Demagnetization will occur at high temperature for a long time

5) compared with switched reluctance motor, it has the advantages of better speed and low noise. The high noise of switched reluctance motor and the significant torque pulsation during low-speed operation are difficult problems for the machine to solve. In addition, the high cost of its supporting controller and the low recognition of the user industry will become the key constraints for the development of switched reluctance motor

7. Promotion suggestions: replace the administrative order with the legal system

representative Huang suggested that the power consumption of industrial motors accounts for so high a proportion of the total power consumption of the whole society. If all enterprises use high-efficiency motors, they can greatly save energy consumption and costs. Huang Daifang said that it is suggested that the government should issue relevant standards. Motor manufacturers must clearly mark the energy consumption level of motors. When purchasing motors and new projects, motor users are forced to use high-efficiency motors, but [sales] are still very large. Relevant government departments should cancel the policy of financial subsidies, strengthen the constraints of standards and specifications, strengthen the compulsory certification of high-efficiency and energy-saving motor products, and tighten market access by strengthening supervision and management, Comprehensively improve the energy efficiency level of incremental motors and force motor manufacturers to transform and upgrade

in fact, the poor promotion effect of high-efficiency motors is related to the habit of using administrative subsidies. The subsidy method is more effective for state-owned enterprises, but has limited impact on private enterprises, and is subject to WTO rules, so the procedures become very complicated. It is reasonable for representative Huang to use legal means to force enterprises to transform. Therefore, legal means is the most effective lever under the condition of market economy. All kinds of new technologies in the EU are promoted by legal means. It is worth learning

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